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Monk_Timothy_PhD_100133.jpg Timothy H. Monk
Professor of Psychiatry
Ph.D., D.Sc.
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
3811 O'Hara Street; E-1123
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone: (412) 246-6401
Fax: (412) 246-5300

B.Sc., University of Nottingham - 1971
Ph.D., University of Nottingham - 1974
D.Sc., University of Nottingham - 1996
Research Interests

Dr. Timothy Monk obtained his PhD from the University of Nottingham in England in 1974 and emigrated to the United States in 1981. His work has focused for several decades on the consequences of disruptions in the human 24h clock and what they mean for a person's sleep, mood and ability to function. He has been concerned both with internal disruptions resulting from advancing in age and from mental illness, as well as outside disruptions associated with space travel, jet travel and night work. His curriculum vitae lists more than 250 research articles and book chapters and six books. Dr. Monk is currently a Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Director of the Human Chronobiology Research Program at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. His two major sources of research funding have been the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and NASA. Dr. Monk’s NIA funded work has been concerned with changes in sleep in the elderly as a function of slight changes in bedtimes, and the sleep and circadian rhythms of retired shift workers. Also, he and is colleagues at WPIC have been awarded a five-year program project grant from NIA (called AgeWise) to investigate interventions designed to impact the sleep of elderly persons living through various late life challenges. Dr. Monk’s component of the program is to evaluate a circadian intervention designed to help widows and widowers. Dr. Monk’s earlier NASA funded work was concerned with sleep restriction, and with repeated phase shifts in schedule, and their effects on human circadian rhythms, sleep, mood and performance. In the 1990’s he led in-flight experiments concerning human circadian rhythms and sleep aboard Space Shuttle Columbia and Space Station Mir, and has been a consultant with NASA regarding the timing of sleep/wake schedules for astronauts aboard the International Space Station.

Monk TH, Folkard S. Adjusting to the Changes to and from Daylight Saving Time. Nature, 261:688-9, 1976.

Monk TH, Folkard S. Concealed Inefficiency of Late Night Study. Nature, 273:296-7, 1978.

Monk TH, Weitzman ED, Fookson JE, Moline ML, Kronauer RE, Gander PH. Task Variables Determine which Biological Clock Controls Circadian Rhythms in Human Performance. Nature, 304:543-5, 1983.

Monk TH, Reynolds CF, Buysse DJ, Hoch CC, Jarrett DB, Jennings JR, Kupfer DJ. Circadian Characteristics of Healthy 80 Year Olds and their Relationship to Objectively Recorded Sleep. Journal of Gerontology, Medical Sciences, 46(5):M171-5, 1991.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Jarrett DB, Kupfer DJ. Rhythmic versus homeostatic influences on mood, activation and performance in the elderly. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 47:P221-7, 1992.

Monk TH, Reynolds CF, Machen MA, Kupfer DJ. Daily social rhythms in the elderly and their relation to objectively recorded sleep. Sleep, 15:322-9, 1992.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ. Inducing jet-lag in older people: Adjusting to a 6-hour phase advance in routine. Experimental Gerontology, 28(2):119-33, 1993.

Monk TH, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Buysse DJ, Coble PA, Hayes AJ, Machen MA, Petrie SR, Ritenour AM. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary. Journal of Sleep Research, 3:111-20, 1994.

Monk TH, Petrie SR, Hayes AJ, Kupfer DJ. Regularity of daily life in relation to personality, age, gender, sleep quality and circadian rhythms. Journal of Sleep Research, 3:196-205, 1994.

Monk TH, Folkard S, Wedderburn AI. Maintaining safety and high performance on shift work. Applied Ergonomics, 27(1):17-23, 1996.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ. Circadian determinants of the post-lunch dip in performance. Chronobiology International, 13:123-33, 1996.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Houck PR. Subjective alertness rhythms in elderly people. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 11:268-76, 1996.

Prigerson HG, Monk TH, Reynolds CF, Begley A, Houck PR, Bierhals AJ, Kupfer DJ. Lifestyle regularity and activity levels as protective factors against bereavement-related depression. Depression, 3(6):297-302, 1996.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Berga SL, Jarrett DB, Begley AE, Kupfer DJ. Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions. Journal of Sleep Research, 6:9-18, 1997.

Monk TH, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Hoch CC, Carrier J, Houck PR. Differences over the life span in daily lifestyle regularity. Chronobiology International, 14(3):295-306, 1997.

Carrier J, Monk TH. Estimating the endogenous circadian temperature rhythm without keeping people awake. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 12(3):266-77, 1997.

Scott AJ, Monk TH, Brink LL. Shift work as a risk factor for depression: A pilot study. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3:S2-9, 1997.

Monk TH, Carrier J. Speed of mental processing in the middle of the night. Sleep, 20(6):399-401, 1997.

Carrier J, Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Kupfer DJ. Sleep and morningness-eveningness in the "middle" years of life (20y-59y). Journal of Sleep Research, 6:230-7, 1997.

Monk TH, Carrier J. A parallelism between human body temperature and performance independent of the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 13:113-22, 1998.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Billy BD, Kennedy KS, Willrich LM. Sleep and circadian rhythms in four orbiting astronauts. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 13(3):188-201, 1998.

Carrier J, Monk TH, Reynolds CF, Buysse DJ, Kupfer DJ. Are age differences in sleep due to phase differences in the output of the circadian timing system? Chronobiology International, 16(1):79-91, 1999.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Rose LR, Kupfer DJ. Wrist actigraphic measures of sleep in space. Sleep, 22(7): 948-54, 1999.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Rose LR, Hall JA, Kupfer DJ. The sleep of healthy people: A diary study. Chronobiology International, 17(1):49-60, 2000.

Monk TH. What can the chronobiologist do to help the shift worker? Journal of Biological Rhythms, 15(2): 86-94, 2000.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Carrier J, Kupfer DJ. Inducing jet-lag in older people: Directional asymmetry. Journal of Sleep Research, 9:101-16, 2000.

Monk TH, Kupfer DJ. Circadian rhythms in healthy aging: Effects downstream from the pacemaker. Chronobiology International, 13(3):355-68, 2000.

Carrier J, Monk TH. Circadian rhythms of performance: New trends. Chronobiology International, 17(6):719-32, 2000.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Welsh DK, Kennedy KS, Rose LR. A sleep diary and questionnaire study of naturally short sleepers. Journal of Sleep Research, 10:173-9, 2001.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Carrier J, Billy BD, Rose LR. Effects of afternoon "siesta" naps on sleep, alertness, performance and circadian rhythms in the elderly. Sleep, 24(6):680-87, 2001.

Monk TH, Kennedy KS, Rose LR. Decreased human circadian pacemaker influence after 100 days in space: A case study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63:881-85, 2001.

Monk TH, Frank E, Potts JM, Kupfer DJ. A simple way to measure lifestyle regularity. Journal of Sleep Research, 11(3):183-90, 2002.

Monk TH, Welsh DK. The role of chronobiology in sleep disorders medicine. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7(6):455-73, 2003.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Kennedy KS, Potts JM, DeGrazia JM, Miewald JM. Measuring sleep habits without using a diary: The sleep timing questionnaire (STQ). Sleep, 26(2):208-12, 2003.

Monk TH, Carrier J. Shift worker performance. Clinics in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3:209-29, 2003.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Potts JM, DeGrazia JM, Kupfer DJ. Morningness-eveningness and lifestyle regularity. Chronobiology International, 21(3):433-41, 2004.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Billy BD, DeGrazia JM. Using nine 2-h delays to achieve a 6-h advance disrupts sleep, alertness and circadian rhythm. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 75:1049-57, 2004.

Klei L, Reitz P, Miller M, Wood J, Maendel S, Gross D, Waldner T, Eaton J, Monk TH, Nimgaonkar VL. Heritability of morningness-eveningness and self-report sleep measures in a family based sample of 521 Hutterites. Chronobiology International, 22(6):1041-54, 2005.

Monk TH. Aging human circadian rhythms: Conventional wisdom may not always be right. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 20(4):366-74, 2005.

Buysse DJ, Monk TH, Carrier J, Begley A. Circadian patterns of sleep, sleepiness, and performance in older and younger adults. Sleep, 28:1365-76, 2005.

Monk TH, Houck PR, Shear MK. The daily life of complicated grief patients--What gets missed, what gets added? Death Studies, 30:77-85, 2006.

Mansour HA, Wood J, Logue T, Chowdari KV, Dayal M, Kupfer DJ, Monk TH, Devlin B, Nimgaonkar VL. Association study of eight circadian genes with bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 5:150-7, 2006.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Billy BD. Using daily 30-min phase advances to achieve a 6-h advance: Circadian rhythm, sleep and alertness. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 77:677-86, 2006.

Germain A, Shear MK, Monk TH, Houck PR, Reynolds CF, III, Frank E, Buysse DJ. Treating complicated grief: Effects on sleep quality. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 4(3):152-63, 2006.

Monk TH, Thompson WK, Buysse DJ, Hall M, Nofzinger EA, Reynolds CF, III. Sleep in healthy seniors. A diary study of the relation between bedtime and the amount of sleep obtained. Journal of Sleep Research, 15(3):256-60, 2006.

Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Hall M, Nofzinger EA, Thompson W, Mazumdar SA, Reynolds CF, III. Age-related differences in the lifestyle regularity of seniors experiencing bereavement, care-giving, insomnia and advancement into old-old age. Chronobiology International, 23(4):831-84, 2006.

Germain A, Moul DE, Franzen PL, Miewald JM, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Buysse DJ. Effects of a brief behavioral treatment for late-life insomnia: Preliminary findings. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2(4):403-6, 2006.

Monk TH, Kupfer DJ. Which aspects of morningness-eveningness change with age? Journal of Biological Rhythms, 22(3):278-80, 2007.

Soehner AM, Kennedy KS, Monk TH. Personality correlates with sleep-wake variables. Chronobiology International, 24(5):889-903, 2007.

Monk TH. Practical consequences of fatigue-related performance failures. Sleep, (in press).

Monk TH, Begley AE, Billy BD, Fletcher ME, Germain A, Mazumdar S, Moul DE, Shear K, Thompson WK, Zarotney JR. Sleep and circadian rhythms in spousally bereaved seniors. Chronobiology International, (in press).
Current PI Funded Research

R01 AG013396-10A1 Phase Shift Tolerance in Older People (Phase IV)

P01 AG20677-05 Aging Well, Sleeping Efficiently: Intervention Studies, CORE A

P01 AG20677-05 Aging Well, Sleeping Efficiently: Intervention Studies, Project 1

UL1 RR024153-02 University of Pittsburgh Clinical and Translational Science Institute

PTK00001-01 Ramelteon as a countermeasure to the induction of insomnia by forced circadian desynchrony

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